The following list includes digit ratio references (from A to Z) of a database I have been creating over the years in collaboration with John Manning (Swansea University). It may not be complete and may contain errors, because the information on digit ratio studies has been obtained from various sources. However, we feel that it is useful to publicize the list, as it may support scholars who work on digit ratio with identifying publications that are relevant for their work. N=912 references (Feb 08, 2020). Recent presentations on 2D:4D by John Manning can be viewed here, and here.
Abbott, A. D., Colman, R. J., Tiefenthaler, R., Dumesic, D. A., & Abbott, D. H. (2012). Early-to-mid gestation fetal testosterone increases right hand 2D:4D finger length ratio in polycystic ovary syndrome-like monkeys. PLoS One
(8), e42372. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042372
Acar, H., & Eler, N. (2018). The Relationship of Digit Ratio (2D:4D) With Cerebral Lateralization and Grip Strength in Elite Swimmers. 2018
(4), 6. https://doi.org/10.11114/jets.v6i4.3040
Agha-Alinejad, H., Farzad, B., Akbari, M., Moffit, D. M., & Dakhili, A. (2019). Digit ratios and motor and health-related fitness in pre-adolescent females. Annals of Human Biology
, 1–22. https://doi.org/10.1080/03014460.2019.1620332
Al-Qattan, N. M., Al-Kharashi, S. K., Al-Hindi, G. K., Dammas, N. M., Kattan, A. E., & Al-Qattan, M. M. (2019). Hand Pattern Based on Second-to-Fourth Digit Ratio: Its Relationship to Sex, Body Mass Index, and Physical Activity. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
(5), e2144–e2144. https://doi.org/10.1097/GOX.0000000000002144
Al-Zaid, F. S., Alhader, A. A., & Al-Ayadhi, L. Y. (2015). The second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) in Saudi boys with autism: A potential screening tool. Early Hum Dev
(7), 413–415. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2015.04.007
Albores-Gallo, L., Fernandez-Guasti, A., Hernandez-Guzman, L., & List-Hilton, C. (2009). [2D:4D finger ratio and language development]. Rev Neurol
(11), 577–581. https://doi.org/rn2008378 [pii]
Alexander, G. M. (2006). Associations among gender-linked toy preferences, spatial ability, and digit ratio: evidence from eye-tracking analysis. Arch Sex Behav, 35(6), 699–709.
Alexander, G. M., & Evardone, M. (2008). Blocks and bodies: sex differences in a novel version of the Mental Rotations Test. Horm Behav
(1), 177–184. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2007.09.014
Alexander, G. M., & Son, T. (2007). Androgens and eye movements in women and men during a test of mental rotation ability. Horm Behav, 52(2), 197–204.
Alexander, G. M., Wilcox, T., & Farmer, M. E. (2009). Hormone-behavior associations in early infancy. Horm Behav
(5), 498–502. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2009.08.003
Allaway, H. C., Bloski, T. G., Pierson, R. A., & Lujan, M. E. (2009). Digit ratios (2D:4D) determined by computer-assisted analysis are more reliable than those using physical measurements, photocopies, and printed scans. Am J Hum Biol
(3), 365–370. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.20892
Almasry, S. M., El Domiaty, M. A., Algaidi, S. A., Elbastawisy, Y. M., & Safwat, M. D. (2011). Index to ring digit ratio in Saudi Arabia at Almadinah Almonawarah province: a direct and indirect measurement study. J Anat
(2), 202–208. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7580.2010.01318.x
Alonso, J., Di Paolo, R., Ponti, G., & Sartarelli, M. (2018). Facts and Misconceptions about 2D:4D, Social and Risk Preferences. Front Behav Neurosci
, 22. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh.2018.00022
Altmann, T., & Roth, M. (2018). 2D:4D digit ratio and its relations to cross-sex and same-sex friendship choices. Personality and Individual Differences
, 278–282. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2018.06.034
Andrew P. McMechan, Shonagh K. O’Leary-Moore, Scott D. Morrison, & John H. Hannigan. (2004). Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on forepaw digit length and digit ratios in rats.
Andrievskaya, I., & Semenova, M. (2017). Does biological endowment matter for demand for financial services? Evidence from 2D:4D ratio in the Russian household survey. Personality and Individual Differences
, 155–165. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.07.019
Androutsos, O., Moschonis, G., Koumpitski, A., Mantzou, A., Roma-Giannikou, E., Chrousos, G. P., … Healthy Growth Study, G. (2014). The correlation of right 2D:4D finger length ratio to the low-grade inflammation marker IL-6 in children. The Healthy Growth Study. Early Hum Dev
(1), 61–65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2013.10.003
Apicella, C. L., Tobolsky, V. A., Marlowe, F. W., & Miller, K. W. (2016). Hadza hunter-gatherer men do not have more masculine digit ratios (2D: 4D). American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 159(2), 223–232.
Apicella, C. L., Dreber, A., Campbell, B., Gray, P. B., Hoffmann, M., & Little, A. (2008). Testosterone and financial risk preferences. Evolution and Human Behavior, 29, 384–390.
Arato, M., Frecska, E., Beck, C., An, M., & Kiss, H. (2004). Digit length pattern in schizophrenia suggests disturbed prenatal hemispheric lateralization. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry
(1), 191–194. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pnpbp.2003.09.020
Arazi, H., Rashidlamir, A., Abolhasani, M. Z., & Hosaini, S. A. (2018). Profiling and predicting performance of indoor rock climbers. Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria & Desempenho Humano, 20, 82–94.
Arbuckle, T. E., Agarwal, A., MacPherson, S. H., Fraser, W. D., Sathyanarayana, S., Ramsay, T., … Monnier, P. (2018). Prenatal exposure to phthalates and phenols and infant endocrine-sensitive outcomes: The MIREC study. Environ Int
, 572–583. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2018.08.034
Asuku, A., Danborno, B., Akuyam, S., Timbuak, J., Mohammed, A., & Adamu, L. (2019). Reference values of body adiposity measures and hand digit ratio (2D:4D) for dyslipidemia: A case study of the Hausa ethnic group in Kano, Nigeria. Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy
(1), 30–37. https://doi.org/10.4103/jeca.jeca_9_19
Atkinson, B. M., Smulders, T. V., & Wallenberg, J. C. (2017). An endocrine basis for tomboy identity: The second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) in “tomboys.” Psychoneuroendocrinology
, 9–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2017.01.032
Auger, J., & Eustache, F. (2010). Second to fourth digit ratios, male genital development and reproductive health: a clinical study among fertile men and testis cancer patients. Int J Androl
Auger, J., Le Denmat, D., Berges, R., Doridot, L., Salmon, B., Canivenc-Lavier, M. C., & Eustache, F. (2013). Environmental levels of oestrogenic and antiandrogenic compounds feminize digit ratios in male rats and their unexposed male progeny. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 280(1768), 20131532.
Austin, E. J., Manning, J. T., McInroy, K., & Mathews, E. (2002). A preliminary investigation of the associations between personality, cognitive ability and digit ratio. Personality and Individual Differences, 33(7), 1115–1124.
Aycinena, D., & Rentschler, L. (2017). Discounting and Digit Ratio: Low 2D:4D Predicts Patience for a Sample of Females. Front Behav Neurosci
, 257. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh.2017.00257
Bagepally, B. S., Majumder, J., & Kotadiya, S. M. (2019). Association between second to fourth digit ratio and personality among Indian men. Am J Hum Biol
, e23331. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23331
Bailey, A. A., & Hurd, P. L. (2005). Depression in men is associated with more feminine finger length ratios. Personality and Individual Differences, 39(4), 829–836.
Bailey, A. A., & Hurd, P. L. (2005). Finger length ratio (2D:4D) correlates with physical aggression in men but not in women. Biol Psychol
(3), 215–222. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2004.05.001
Bailey, A. A., Wahlsten, D., & Hurd, P. L. (2005). Digit ratio (2D:4D) and behavioral differences between inbred mouse strains. Genes Brain and Behavior
(5), 318–323. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1601-183X.2004.00110.x
Baker, J., Kungl, A.-M., Pabst, J., Strauß, B., Büsch, D., & Schorer, J. (2013). Your fate is in your hands? Handedness, digit ratio (2D: 4D), and selection to a national talent development system. Laterality: Asymmetries of Body, Brain and Cognition, 18(6), 710–718.
Bakholdina, V. Y., Movsesian, A. A., & Negasheva, M. A. (2018). Association between the digit ratio (2D:4D) and body fat distribution in Mordovian students. Ann Hum Biol
, 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1080/03014460.2018.1495264
Bakholdina, V. Y., Movsesian, A. A., & Sineva, I. M. (2016). Digit ratio (2D:4D): Is it possible to use it for sex determination in the study of human skeletal remains? Am J Hum Biol
(4), 591–593. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.22824
Bang, A. K., Carlsen, E., Holm, M., Petersen, J. H., Skakkebaek, N. E., & Jorgensen, N. (2005). A study of finger lengths, semen quality and sex hormones in 360 young men from the general Danish population. Hum Reprod
(11), 3109–3113. https://doi.org/10.1093/humrep/dei170
Barel, E., & Tzischinsky, O. (2017). The role of sex hormones and of 2D:4D ratio in individual differences in cognitive abilities. Journal of Cognitive Psychology
(4), 497–507. https://doi.org/10.1080/20445911.2017.1279166
Barona, M., Kothari, R., Skuse, D., & Micali, N. (2015). Social communication and emotion difficulties and second to fourth digit ratio in a large community-based sample. Mol Autism
(1), 68. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13229-015-0063-7
Barut, C., Tan, U., & Dogan, A. (2008). Association of height and weight with second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) and sex differences. Percept Mot Skills
(2), 627–632. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.106.2.627-632
Baxter, A., Wood, E. K., Jarman, P., Cameron, A. N., Capitanio, J. P., & Higley, J. D. (2018). Sex Differences in Rhesus Monkeys’ Digit Ratio (2D:4D Ratio) and Its Association With Maternal Social Dominance Rank. Front Behav Neurosci
, 213. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh.2018.00213
Baxter, A., Wood, E. K., Witczak, L. R., Bales, K. L., & Higley, J. D. (2019). Sexual Dimorphism in Titi Monkeys’ Digit (2D:4D) Ratio is Associated with Maternal Urinary Sex Hormones During Pregnancy. Dev Psychobiol
Beaton, A. A., Rudling, N., Kissling, C., Taurines, R., & Thome, J. (2011). Digit ratio (2D:4D), salivary testosterone, and handedness. Laterality
(2), 136–155. https://doi.org/10.1080/13576500903410369
Beaton, A. A., Magowan, S. V., & Rudling, N. G. (2012). Does handedness or digit ratio (2D:4D) predict lateralised cognitive ability? Personality and Individual Differences
(5), 627–631. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2011.12.006
Beaty, L. E., Emmering, Q. C., & Bernal, X. E. (2016). Mixed Sex Effects on the Second-to-Fourth Digit Ratio of Tungara Frogs (Engystomops pustulosus) and Cane Toads (Rhinella marina). Anat Rec (Hoboken)
(4), 421–427. https://doi.org/10.1002/ar.23322
Beech, J. R., & Beauvois, M. W. (2006). Early experience of sex hormones as a predictor of reading, phonology, and auditory perception. Brain and Language, 96(1), 49–58.
Beech, J. R., & Mackintosh, I. C. (2005). Do differences in sex hormones affect handwriting style? Evidence from digit ratio and sex role identity as determinants of the sex of handwriting. Personality and Individual Differences, 39(2), 459–468.
Benderlioglu, Z., & Nelson, R. J. (2004). Digit length ratios predict reactive aggression in women, but not in men. Horm Behav
(5), 558–564. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2004.06.004
Bendixen, M., Kennair, L. E. O., Ringheim, H. K., Isaksen, L., Pedersen, L., Svangtun, S., & Hagen, K. (2015). In search of moderators of sex differences in forced-choice jealousy responses: Effects of 2D:4D digit ratio and relationship infidelity experiences. Nordic Psychology
(4), 272–284. https://doi.org/10.1080/19012276.2015.1013975
Bennett, M., Manning, J. T., Cook, C. J., & Kilduff, L. P. (2010). Digit ratio (2D:4D) and performance in elite rugby players. J Sports Sci
(13), 1415–1421. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2010.510143
Berenbaum, S. A., Bryk, K. K., Nowak, N., Quigley, C. A., & Moffat, S. (2009). Fingers as a marker of prenatal androgen exposure. Endocrinology
(11), 5119–5124. https://doi.org/10.1210/en.2009-0774