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Digit Ratio References

The following list includes digit ratio references (from A to Z) of a database I have been creating in collaboration with John Manning (Swansea University). It may not be complete and may contain errors, because the information on digit ratio studies has been obtained from various sources. However, we feel that it is useful to publicize the list, as it may help scholars who work on digit ratio with identifying relevant publications for their work. N=1,150 references (Feb 13, 2022). Recent presentations on 2D:4D by John Manning can be viewed here, and here.

Ab-Rahman, S., Amir, N., & Sharifudin, M. A. Relationship between Index-to-Ring Length Ratio (2D:4D) and WOMAC Osteoarthritis Index in Women with Knee Osteoarthritis. Malaysian Applied Biology, 50, 185–191.
Abbott, A. D., Colman, R. J., Tiefenthaler, R., Dumesic, D. A., & Abbott, D. H. (2012). Early-to-mid gestation fetal testosterone increases right hand 2D:4D finger length ratio in polycystic ovary syndrome-like monkeys. PLoS One, 7(8), e42372. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042372
Abé, C., Adebahr, R., Liberg, B., Mannfolk, C., Lebedev, A., Eriksson, J., Långström, N., & Rahm, C. (2020). Brain structure and clinical profile point to neurodevelopmental factors involved in pedophilic disorder. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/10.1111/acps.13273
Acar, H., & Eler, N. (2018). The Relationship of Digit Ratio (2D:4D) With Cerebral Lateralization and Grip Strength in Elite Swimmers. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 6(4), 6. https://doi.org/10.11114/jets.v6i4.3040
Acar, H., & Tutkun, E. (2019). Analysis of 2D:4D Ratios of National and Amateur Football Players. International Journal of Applied Exercise Physiology, 8(1), 132–137.
Adamczyk, J. G., Safranow, K., Gajewski, A. K., Boguszewski, D., Sozański, H., Sołtyszewski, I., Pepłońska, B., Cięszczyk, P., Siewierski, M., & Żekanowski, C. (2021). The Second-to-Fourth Digit (2D:4D) Ratio of Male Combat Athletes is Associated with the Choice of Sport. Journal of Human Kinetics, 78, 59–66. PubMed. https://doi.org/10.2478/hukin-2020-0083
Agha-Alinejad, H., Farzad, B., Akbari, M., Moffit, D. M., & Dakhili, A. (2019). Digit ratios and motor and health-related fitness in pre-adolescent females. Annals of Human Biology, 46(3), 1–22. https://doi.org/10.1080/03014460.2019.1620332
Al-Qattan, N. M., Al-Kharashi, S. K., Al-Hindi, G. K., Dammas, N. M., Kattan, A. E., & Al-Qattan, M. M. (2019). Hand Pattern Based on Second-to-Fourth Digit Ratio: Its Relationship to Sex, Body Mass Index, and Physical Activity. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open, 7(5), e2144–e2144. PubMed. https://doi.org/10.1097/GOX.0000000000002144
Al-Zaid, F. S., Alhader, A. A., & Al-Ayadhi, L. Y. (2015). The second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) in Saudi boys with autism: A potential screening tool. Early Hum Dev, 91(7), 413–415. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2015.04.007
Albores-Gallo, L., Fernandez-Guasti, A., Hernandez-Guzman, L., & List-Hilton, C. (2009). [2D:4D finger ratio and language development]. Rev Neurol, 48(11), 577–581. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19472155
Alex, A. M., Ruvio, T., Xia, K., Jha, S. C., Girault, J. B., Wang, L., Li, G., Shen, D., Cornea, E., Styner, M. A., Gilmore, J. H., & Knickmeyer, R. C. (2021). Influence of Gonadal Steroids on Cortical Surface Area in Infancy. Cerebral Cortex. https://doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhab410
Alexander, G. M. (2006). Associations among gender-linked toy preferences, spatial ability, and digit ratio: evidence from eye-tracking analysis. Arch Sex Behav, 35(6), 699–709. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-006-9038-2
Alexander, G. M., & Evardone, M. (2008). Blocks and bodies: sex differences in a novel version of the Mental Rotations Test. Horm Behav, 53(1), 177–184. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2007.09.014
Alexander, G. M., & Son, T. (2007). Androgens and eye movements in women and men during a test of mental rotation ability. Horm Behav, 52(2), 197–204. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2007.01.011
Alexander, G. M., Wilcox, T., & Farmer, M. E. (2009). Hormone-behavior associations in early infancy. Horm Behav, 56(5), 498–502. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2009.08.003
Alinezhadi, I., Heidari, N., & Javanbakht, H. (2020). Sexual dimorphism in digit length ratios of the second to fourth digits (2D:4D) in two species of green toads (Pelobates syriacus Boettger, 1889 and Bufo viridis (Laurenti, 1768)). Nova Biologica Reperta, 7(3), 295–303. https://doi.org/10.52547/nbr.7.3.295
Allaway, H. C., Bloski, T. G., Pierson, R. A., & Lujan, M. E. (2009). Digit ratios (2D:4D) determined by computer-assisted analysis are more reliable than those using physical measurements, photocopies, and printed scans. Am J Hum Biol, 21(3), 365–370. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.20892
Almasry, S. M., El Domiaty, M. A., Algaidi, S. A., Elbastawisy, Y. M., & Safwat, M. D. (2011). Index to ring digit ratio in Saudi Arabia at Almadinah Almonawarah province: a direct and indirect measurement study. J Anat, 218(2), 202–208. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7580.2010.01318.x
Alonso, J., Di Paolo, R., Ponti, G., & Sartarelli, M. (2018). Facts and Misconceptions about 2D:4D, Social and Risk Preferences. Front Behav Neurosci, 12, 22. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh.2018.00022
Altmann, T., & Roth, M. (2018). 2D:4D digit ratio and its relations to cross-sex and same-sex friendship choices. Personality and Individual Differences, 134, 278–282. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2018.06.034
Andrievskaya, I., & Semenova, M. Does biological endowment matter for demand for financial services? Evidence from 2D:4D ratio in the Russian household survey. Personality and Individual Differences, 104, 155–165. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.07.019
Androutsos, O., Moschonis, G., Koumpitski, A., Mantzou, A., Roma-Giannikou, E., Chrousos, G. P., Manios, Y., Kanaka-Gantenbein, C., & Healthy Growth Study, G. (2014). The correlation of right 2D:4D finger length ratio to the low-grade inflammation marker IL-6 in children. The Healthy Growth Study. Early Hum Dev, 90(1), 61–65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2013.10.003
Aparicio-Martínez, P., Ruiz-Rubio, M., Perea-Moreno, A.-J., Martínez-Jiménez, M. P., Pagliari, C., Redel-Macías, M. D., & Vaquero-Abellán, M. (2020). Gender differences in the addiction to social networks in the Southern Spanish university students. Telematics and Informatics, 46, 101304. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tele.2019.101304
Apicella, C. L., Tobolsky, V. A., Marlowe, F. W., & Miller, K. W. (2016). Hadza hunter-gatherer men do not have more masculine digit ratios (2D: 4D). American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 159(2), 223–232.
Apicella, C. L., Dreber, A., Campbell, B., Gray, P. B., Hoffmann, M., & Little, A. (2008). Testosterone and financial risk preferences. Evolution and Human Behavior, 29, 384–390. http://www.ehbonline.org/article/S1090-5138(08)00067-6/abstract
Arato, M., Frecska, E., Beck, C., An, M., & Kiss, H. (2004). Digit length pattern in schizophrenia suggests disturbed prenatal hemispheric lateralization. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry, 28(1), 191–194. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pnpbp.2003.09.020
Arazi, H., Rashidlamir, A., Abolhasani, M. Z., & Hosaini, S. A. (2018). Profiling and predicting performance of indoor rock climbers. Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria & Desempenho Humano, 20, 82–94. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1980-00372018000100082&nrm=iso
Arbuckle, T. E., Agarwal, A., MacPherson, S. H., Fraser, W. D., Sathyanarayana, S., Ramsay, T., Dodds, L., Muckle, G., Fisher, M., Foster, W., Walker, M., & Monnier, P. (2018). Prenatal exposure to phthalates and phenols and infant endocrine-sensitive outcomes: The MIREC study. Environ Int, 120, 572–583. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2018.08.034
Arjun Maitra, V. A., Nitin Srivastava, Sajjan Lal Verma. (2021). Assessing the Relationship between Digit Ratio a Marker for Prenatal Androgen Exposure and Different Blood Pressure Components among North Indian Males: A Pilot Study. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, 15(8), CC01–CC05. https://doi.org/10.7860/jcdr/2021/50559.15191
Asuku, A., Danborno, B., Akuyam, S., Timbuak, J., Mohammed, A., & Adamu, L. (2019). Reference values of body adiposity measures and hand digit ratio (2D:4D) for dyslipidemia: A case study of the Hausa ethnic group in Kano, Nigeria. Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy, 18(1), 30–37. https://doi.org/10.4103/jeca.jeca_9_19
Atkinson, B. M., Smulders, T. V., & Wallenberg, J. C. (2017). An endocrine basis for tomboy identity: The second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) in “tomboys.” Psychoneuroendocrinology, 79, 9–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2017.01.032
Auger, J., & Eustache, F. (2010). Second to fourth digit ratios, male genital development and reproductive health: a clinical study among fertile men and testis cancer patients. Int J Androl, 34(4 Pt 2), e49-58. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2605.2010.01124.x
Auger, J., Le Denmat, D., Berges, R., Doridot, L., Salmon, B., Canivenc-Lavier, M. C., & Eustache, F. (2013). Environmental levels of oestrogenic and antiandrogenic compounds feminize digit ratios in male rats and their unexposed male progeny. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 280(1768), 20131532.
Austin, E. J., Manning, J. T., McInroy, K., & Mathews, E. (2002). A preliminary investigation of the associations between personality, cognitive ability and digit ratio. Personality and Individual Differences, 33(7), 1115–1124. ://000179018700008
Aycinena, D., & Rentschler, L. (2017). Discounting and Digit Ratio: Low 2D:4D Predicts Patience for a Sample of Females. Front Behav Neurosci, 11, 257. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh.2017.00257
Azam, M. Z. M., Norman, W. M. N. W., Linoby, A., Sariman, H., Zaki, M. S. M., Afandi, A., & Mohamed, M. N. (2014). Digitus Secundus and Digitus Medicinalis Ratio: Examination of Sporting Ability Predictor in Male Youth. In R. Adnan, S. I. Ismail, & N. Sulaiman (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Colloquium on Sports Science, Exercise, Engineering and Technology 2014 (ICoSSEET 2014) (pp. 135–142). Springer Singapore.
Azam, Z., Johar, I., Zainuddin, Z. A., & Rahman, F. (2019). Digit ratio and its relationship with aerobic and anaerobic cpacities among talented young footballers. Malaysian Journal of Movement, Health & Exercise, 8(1), 135–143.
Bäck, N., Schaefer, K., & Windhager, S. (2021). Handgrip strength and 2D : 4D in women: homogeneous samples challenge the (apparent) gender paradox. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 288(1964), 20212328. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2021.2328
Bagepally, B. S., Majumder, J., & Kotadiya, S. (2020). Association between the 2d:4d and cardiovascular risk factors: Body mass index, blood pressure and body fat. Early Human Development, 151, 105193. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2020.105193
Bagepally, B. S., Majumder, J., & Kotadiya, S. M. (2019). Association between second to fourth digit ratio and personality among Indian men. Am J Hum Biol, 32(2), e23331. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23331
Bahaxiaer, N., Hua, A., & Hai-zhong, W. (2014). Digit and digit ratio of Xinjiang young Kazakh nationality. Modern Rehabilitation, 42, 6878–6883. http://caod.oriprobe.com/articles/43249647/Digit_and_digit_ratio_of_Xinjiang_young_Kazakh_nationality.htm
Bailey, A. A., & Hurd, P. L. (2005). Depression in men is associated with more feminine finger length ratios. Personality and Individual Differences, 39(4), 829–836. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6V9F-4G7G46J-3/2/98d93f59998451e95ea5d41516298696
Bailey, A. A., & Hurd, P. L. (2005). Finger length ratio (2D:4D) correlates with physical aggression in men but not in women. Biol Psychol, 68(3), 215–222. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2004.05.001
Bailey, A. A., Wahlsten, D., & Hurd, P. L. (2005). Digit ratio (2D:4D) and behavioral differences between inbred mouse strains. Genes Brain Behav, 4(5), 318–323. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1601-183X.2004.00110.x
Baker, J., Kungl, A.-M., Pabst, J., Strauß, B., Büsch, D., & Schorer, J. (2013). Your fate is in your hands? Handedness, digit ratio (2D: 4D), and selection to a national talent development system. Laterality: Asymmetries of Body, Brain and Cognition, 18(6), 710–718.
Bakholdina, V. Y., Movsesian, A. A., & Negasheva, M. A. (2018). Association between the digit ratio (2D:4D) and body fat distribution in Mordovian students. Ann Hum Biol, 45(5), 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1080/03014460.2018.1495264
Bakholdina, V. Y., Movsesian, A. A., & Sineva, I. M. (2016). Digit ratio (2D:4D): Is it possible to use it for sex determination in the study of human skeletal remains? Am J Hum Biol, 28(4), 591–593. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.22824
Bang, A. K., Carlsen, E., Holm, M., Petersen, J. H., Skakkebaek, N. E., & Jorgensen, N. (2005). A study of finger lengths, semen quality and sex hormones in 360 young men from the general Danish population. Hum Reprod, 20(11), 3109–3113. https://doi.org/10.1093/humrep/dei170
Banyeh, M., Amidu, N., & Quaye, L. (n.d.). The relationship between 2D:4D ratio and postpartum adult female variables in a Ghanaian population. American Journal of Human Biology, n/a(n/a), e23680. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23680

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